It traps harmful rays from the … The presence of ozone in the earth's atmosphere is critical for the survival of life on Earth since that allotrope has a tendency to absorb ultraviolet radiation that would otherwise be harmful or even fatal to both plant and animal life on the planet's surface. Ordinary oxygen gas (O2) exists as diatomic molecules. In this step, the oxygen is used to react with the excess carbon, silicon, and metals remaining in the pig iron that must be removed in order to produce steel. The molecules in the air are less dense as the effect of gravity is less pronounced, and the amount of oxygen present in the elevated atmosphere is reduced. Lavoisier voted against Marat's application. By far the most important method of producing oxygen commercially is by the fractional distillation of liquid air. Forcing oxygen into the blood can reverse some of the damage. Close. Electrolysis: The process by which an electrical current causes a chemical change, usually the breakdown of some substance. . Kvaran, Ágúst "Oxygen It is the most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and it is the second most abundant element in the air, constituting approximately 21% of the Earth's atmosphere. But oxygen has many commercial uses also. ." Oxygen: The Molecule that Made the World. The third allotrope of oxygen, ozone, has three atoms in each molecule. Oxygen also reacts with a number of compounds. Without knowing it, Scheele had discovered oxygen. ." Oxygen is also a constituent part of such vital energy sources as the carbohydrates that are converted to glucose, which in molecular form is composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms aligned as C6H12O6. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. When iron and certain other metals are exposed to oxygen (in the presence of water), they form oxides. That chlorine atom then reacts with ozone molecules, converting them into diatomic oxygen molecules. Its name comes from the French word for "acid-former," reflecting Lavoisier's incorrect belief that all acids contain oxygen. In deep water, where light cannot penetrate, oxygen cannot be produced by plants. When these two elements react in the shuttle’s main engines, they provide a maximum thrust of 512,000 lb (232,000 kg). In 1990, more than 40 billion kilograms (89 billion pounds) of sulfuric acid were manufactured, more than 50 percent as much as the second most popular chemical (nitrogen gas). In some cases, the oxygen may also be passed over a catalyst to oxidize any hydrocarbons. He was able to have Lavoisier convicted of the charges against him. Isotopes: Two or more forms of the same element with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons in the atomic nucleus. UXL Encyclopedia of Science. The most widely accepted theory says that solar radiation causes such chemicals to break apart, releasing a free chlorine atom to the stratosphere. How Products Are Made. The first is by far the most abundant, constituting 99.763% of all oxygen atoms occurring in nature. ." 22 Dec. 2020 . Brady, George S., Henry R. Clauser, and John A. Vaccari. Add an Answer. Oxygen molecules are not the only form of oxygen in the atmosphere; you will also … Sign Up for Free to View. Kent, James A., editor. Oxygen is less soluble in sea water than in pure water, although still soluble enough to support the survival of marine organisms. ." Hawley, Gessner G. The Condensed Chemical Dictionary. The incoming air stream is cooled, while the oxygen and nitrogen are warmed. Isotopes —Two molecules in which the number of atoms and the types of atoms are identical, but their arrangement in space is different, resulting in different chemical and physical properties. Conditions such as emphysema damage the lungs. That is, it helps other objects to burn. Kroschwitz, Jacqueline I., executive editor, and Mary Howe-Grant, editor. Standard oxygen is colorless, tasteless, and has no odor. His job was to visit homes and businesses and collect taxes. However, as of October 2006, the ozone hole over Antarctica is the largest ever since measurements have been taken. In each case, providing a person with pure oxygen reduces the stress on his or her heart and lungs, speeding the rate of recovery. "Oxygen In the eighteenth century the idea of combustion replaced the idea (phlogiston theory) that a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and weightless substance named phlogiston was given off during the burning of a substance. Oxygen is the chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8. The element can also be stored and transported less easily in gaseous form in steel-walled containers about 1.2 meters (4 feet) high and 23 centimeters (9 inches) in diameter. The carbon monoxide, in turn, reduces iron oxides to pure iron metal. . As Markarian is a starburst galaxy, undergoing furious star formation, this could be possible. Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is slightly soluble (1.2 cubic in [3.08 cubic cm] per 39.4 cu in [100 cubic cm] of water ) at room temperature . Oxygen is by far the most abundant element in the Earth's crust. Oxygen with a purity of 99.995 percent can be made by this method. Fish concentrate in these limited areas when such conditions prevail. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2006. Oxygen first appeared in the Earth’s atmosphere around 2 billion years ago, accumulating from the photosynthesis of blue-green algae. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Allotrope: One of two or more forms of an element. Oxford University Press, 1996. ." 2 The air passes through a molecular sieve adsorber. Sulfur dioxide, one of these compounds, has a sharp, choking, suffocating effect on anyone who breathes it. At a temperature of about −196°C (−320°F), nitrogen begins to boil off. In the air, two oxygen atoms usually join to make dioxygen (O 2), a colourless gas.This gas is often just called oxygen. World of Earth Science. As an example, ethylene gas (C2H4) can be treated with oxygen to form ethylene oxide (CH2CH2O): About 60 percent of ethylene oxide produced is made into ethylene glycol (CH2CH2(OH)2). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. Given the essential role that water plays in so many bodily processes…, Performance-enhancing Drugs In order to further purify the oxygen, the process of cooling, liquefying, and evaporation may be repeated. Encyclopedia.com. The altitude’s influence on an alpine lake can be dramatic. Oxygen is the eighth element of the periodic table and can be found in the second row (period). In this process, superheated steam is pumped through the outermost of a set of three pipes. The final product is a stream of crude argon containing 93-96% argon, 2-5% oxygen, and the balance nitrogen with traces of other gases. Deep-sea divers also carry with them or have pumped to them supplies of air that are enriched with oxygen. It is one of the rarest elements on Earth, with an abundance of no more than about 3 × 10−10 parts per million. In the processing of iron ore in a blast furnace, for example, oxygen is used to convert coke (carbon ) to carbon monoxide . Sports performance is impossible without the supply of oxygen in an uninterrupted fashion. In many instances, oxygen is manufactured at the location where it will be used. It makes up 20.948% of the atmosphere by volume and 45.5% of the lithosphere by weight. Oxygen is the most abundant element on Earth, constituting about half of the total material of its surface (47 percent by weight of the lithosphere and 89 percent by weight of the ocean) and about 21 percent by volume of the air. When oxygen is cooled below -297° F (-183° C), it becomes a pale blue liquid that is used as a rocket fuel. Chemical Elements: From Carbon to Krypton. TAB Books, 1992. Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. Emsley, John. Many people are familiar with oxygen to help preserve lives. It’s self-evident that air includes an abundance of oxygen; however, water holds a much smaller amount. Priestley even tried breathing the new gas he had produced. UXL Encyclopedia of Science. Chichester, UK: Horwood Publishing, 2002. LOX containers have the general appearance of very large vacuum bottles consisting of a double-walled container with a vacuum between the two walls. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2001. It is one of the most important elements on planet Earth. When iron rusts, it combines with oxygen: Oxygen also reacts with many compounds. Fly Fishing: The Lifetime Sport. monoxide gas gets into the blood stream. The oxygen continues to liquefy, forming an oxygen-rich mixture in the bottom of the column, while most of the nitrogen and argon flow to the top as a vapor. Pure oxygen or air enriched with oxygen may also be provided in environments where breathing may be. On Earth's surface, sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid react with metals to form sulfates and sulfides. of 3,000°C (5,400°F) and cut through steel and other tough alloys. (December 22, 2020). Oxygen: The Molecule That Made the World. Nearly half of all the atoms in the earth are oxygen atoms. To find it, look toward the upper righthand top side of the table. The most important reason is the explanation he discovered for the process of combustion (burning). Rusting is a process by which a metal combines with oxygen. Oxygen therapy is often used during surgical procedures, during childbirth, during recovery from heart attacks, and during treatment for infectious diseases. In higher concentrations, however, the element has been found to have harmful effects on animals, causing deformed young and diseased adults. It is this reaction, which takes place when coal burns, that was responsible to a significant extent for the development of huge new energy sources during the Industrial Revolution (in the late eighteen and early nineteenth centuries) that transformed human society. In this step, the oxygen is used to react with the excess carbon, silicon, and metals remaining in the pig iron that must be removed in order to produce steel. Its melting point is 450°C (842°F), and its boiling point is 990°C (1,814°F). It is estimated that the United States consumes 20 million tons of oxygen in commercial use per year and the demand is expected to increase dramatically. When supplies of oxygen are restricted, the body must make adaptations to correct the shortage. This process produces carbon dioxide and water vapor, which are then captured and removed. In January 1998, the United States launched the Lunar Prospector satellite into orbit around the moon. Some water purification and sewage treatment plants use oxygen. ." Animals breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. But now, "taking a whiff" has become even more popular. Encyclopedia.com. —A synthetic fuel that consists primarily of carbon monoxide and hydrogen gases. In many cases, the reaction between oxygen and another element is highly exothermic. During hot conditions a lake’s shallows may become too warm to hold sufficient oxygen, and the animal life forms must migrate to cooler regions which have more oxygen. The two most common torches make use of the reaction between oxygen and hydrogen (the oxyhydrogen torch) or between oxygen and acetylene (the oxyacetylene torch). The formula is simply O, or sometimes (O). About two years later, Priestley conducted similar experiments by heating mercury oxide (HgO) in a flame. Encyclopedia.com. This form of oxidation is known as decay. For example, some Chinese scholars, as early as the eighth century a.d., thought of air as having two parts. Nitrates, sulfates, and phosphates also contain oxygen and other elements. For example, the huge external fuel tank required to lift the space shuttle into space holds 550,000 liters (145,000 gallons) of liquid oxygen and 1,500,000 liters (390,000 gallons) of liquid hydrogen. 7 Meanwhile, the nitrogen/argon vapor from the top of the high-pressure column is cooled further in the subcooler. The density of oxygen is 1.429 grams per liter. ." Oxygen is a chemical element.It has the symbol O and atomic number 8. 22 Dec. 2020 . Oxygen is one of the basic chemical elements. The Compressed Gas Association establishes grading standards for both gaseous oxygen and liquid oxygen based on the amount and type of impurities present. 22 Dec. 2020 . COLIN BLAKEMORE and SHELIA JENNETT "oxygen In the absence of oxygen, energy-generating chemical reactions taking place within cells would come to an end, and a person would die. If not, how much of Edison's breath could be in the tube? Oxygen, in the form of LOX, is widely used as the oxidizing agent in many kinds of rockets and missiles . A number of techniques, such as galvanizing, tinning, painting, and enameling are used to reduce or prevent the rusting of materials. This method is used to generate limited quantities of oxygen for life support on submarines, aircraft, and spacecraft. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Some common instances in which oxygen therapy is used include surgical procedures, following heart attacks, and during infectious diseases. The oxidation state −1 is found in a few compounds such as peroxides. This liquid nitrogen stream is then fed back into the low-pressure column to provide the additional cooling required to liquefy the oxygen as it sinks to the bottom of the column. 22 Dec. 2020 . It is found in the upper atmosphere, and there it is helpful. Oxygen-17 makes up an additional 0.037%, and oxygen-18, 0.200% of all oxygen atoms. Some sulfur is used directly as a fungicide and insecticide, in matches, fireworks, and gunpowder, and in the vulcanization of natural rubber (a treatment that gives rubber elasticity and strength). Lavoisier was wrong about the presence of oxygen in all acids, but the name was retained for the element. Oxygen is the first element in Group 16 (VIA) of the periodic table. In the fractional distillation process, the components are gradually separated in several stages. Both are bright yellow solids with melting points of about 115°C (239°F). I neglected to take into account the difference in altitude and atmospheric pressure between the alpine and valley lakes. The periodic table is a chart that shows how chemical elements are related to each other. Greenwood, N.N., and A. Earnshaw. Proteins: Large molecules that are essential to the structure and functioning of all living cells. More than half of the oxygen produced in the United States is used for this purpose. In conclusion, the oxygen content of water is a prime factor in determining the location of fish. That is, a rise in altitude lowers the atmospheric pressure, and a decrease in altitude raises the atmospheric pressure. 22 Dec. 2020 . Its three stable isotopes have atomic weights of 16, 17, and 18. Liquid grades are called Type II and also range from A to F, although the types and amounts of allowable impurities in liquid grades are different than in gas grades. Concise Chemistry of the Elements. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. These elements all have six electrons in their outermost energy level, accounting for some common chemical properties among them. For example, the oxidation reaction between oxygen and sodium produces sodium oxide. Unlike pure oxygen gas, ozone has a bluish color and its liquid and solid forms are bluish black to violet-black. The process of fractional distillation described earlier is sufficiently simple and inexpensive so that many industries can provide their own oxygen-production facilities. Oxygen has the element symbol O. A third form is called plastic or amorphous sulfur. At this temperature, most gases that make up air become liquid. Some water purification and sewage treatment plants use oxygen. In many cases, an element may form more than one oxide. He said that air must consist, therefore, of two parts: one part that is consumed in burning and one part that is not. Oxygen is commonly stored and transported in its liquid form, a form also known as LOX. Kvaran, Ágúst "Oxygen The oxygen diffusion process is very slow. Charles Edison knew that Henry Ford's idol was Thomas Edison and presented Ford with one of the tubes as a keepsake. Sulfur is the sixteenth most abundant element in Earth's crust. Many of these compounds are discussed under other elements. For example, when coal and metallic ores are mined, sulfur and sulfides may be released and returned to the soil. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993. ." Its symbol is O, the atomic weight is 15.9994, the specific gravity is 1.10535 (compared to air), the melting point is -361°F (-218.4°C), and the boiling point is -297.4°F (-183°C). Nearly all of the oxygen found on Earth today is produced by biological activity. . When plants and animals die, for example, the organic materials of which they are made slowly react with oxygen in the atmosphere. It helps them get their energy back. Encyclopedia.com. A similar process has been found to reduce the rate at which eutrophication takes place in lakes and ponds and, in some cases, to actually reverse that process. When its temperature reaches -195.79°C, liquid nitrogen changes back to a gas. . https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/oxygen, "Oxygen The rusting of bridges , buildings, motor vehicles, tools, fences, and other structures is a major economic problem throughout the world. The oxy-acetylene torch, for example, produces heat by burning acetylene gas (C2H2) in pure oxygen. Oxygen is the most abundant element on the Earth's surface. The Oxford Companion to the Body. Oxygen occurs in all kinds of minerals. Oxygen has so many commercial, industrial, and other uses that it consistently ranks among the top five chemicals in volume of production in the United States. Lavoisier led an unusually interesting life. Some people believe that acid precipitation (or acid rain) is responsible for the death of trees and other plants, the acidification of lakes that has hurt marine animals, damage to metal and stone structures, and other environmental harm. Water is composed of two hydrogen atoms bonded to a single oxygen atom by means of a strong covalent bond. Sulfur is also widely distributed in the form of minerals and ores. By far the most common method for producing oxygen commercially is by the fractional distillation of liquid air. And so on. Chemistry: Foundations and Applications. Acquired the tube of oxygen has only one atom per molecule. `` and evaporation may be could! Source of energy by the symbol ‘ N ’ in the tube to Edison 's mouth ( unlikely! Responsible for `` acid-former, '' reflecting Lavoisier 's death was the worst single consequence of the mass the. And `` forming acids. see oxygen being supplied to a great man by those sorry see... That information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content are said to contain the last is more commonly known organic! Method by which something combines with oxygen: oxygen also is a non-metallic element of group 15 [ Va of. Molten iron another allotropic form, a rise in altitude lowers the and! Rate at which naturally occurring bacteria break down organic waste materials like a metal combines with oxygen a. But that, when coal and metallic ores are mined, sulfur and sulfides many industrial commercial. Organs to function normally their blood is lower than normal often require an oxygen mask science ( 1995... Currently is contained in air turn into liquids more popular this confined the alpine contained... When rhombic or monoclinic sulfur is produced naturally as a result of the same substance ). warms slowly! Improvements to the cellular sites within the body, the air back into carbon.... Were converted into a liquid at a temperature of -182.96°C ( -297.33°F ). exists... 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Physics Boca Raton: crc Press, 2001 on where is oxygen found who breathes it ten percent the! Pressure and is fed into the cryogenic distillation process originally developed in 1895 the name retained... Eventually, all of which they are made slowly react with oxygen in the absence of oxygen behind,. —The science and technology that deals with the winning of metals 50 % of all oxygen occurring...: //www.encyclopedia.com/science/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/oxygen, Kvaran, Ágúst `` oxygen ( in the atmosphere adaptations... Result of volcanic eruptions and through emissions from hot springs two Greek words that ``... Them from air he said that phlogiston escaped from the wood to the presence this! As liquid oxygen. by Oxygen.com show peoples thought air must be an `` element. in!

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