They are extremely important food for numerous species of birds, and also are eaten by other wild animals. The genus is distributed throughout the world's different climates. The type species is Ilex aquifolium, the common European holly used in Christmas decorations and cards. This compact male holly shrub has an upright habit. Having evolved numerous species that are endemic to islands and small mountain ranges, and being highly useful plants, many hollies are now becoming rare. This plant is tolerant of a wide range of soil types and will thrive in both wet or dry soils. [35][36] In many Western Christian cultures, holly is a traditional Christmas decoration,[37] used especially in wreaths and illustrations, for instance on Christmas cards. Ilex aquifolium, the holly, common holly, English holly, European holly, or occasionally Christmas holly, is a species of flowering plant in the family Aquifoliaceae, native to western and southern Europe, northwest Africa, and southwest Asia. This plant is a female species of holly and will need to be pollinated by a male blue holly in order to produce fruits. It needs moist soil to thrive and shouldn’t be allowed to dry out. [34], Holly – more specifically the European holly, Ilex aquifolium – is commonly referenced at Christmas time, and is often referred to by the name Christ's thorn. Plant in mass for an effective windbreak. Only 13 left in stock. In the autumn of this first year (about September/October) transplant the young trees into 1- or 2-litre pots, taking care not to disturb the roots too much. Afterwards, dig … Buy Holly plants online for fast UK delivery with a 2yr guarantee! This shrubs' leaves are a glossy, dark green color with a bluish cast to them and are moderately spiny. It is a deciduous shrub with deep green, ovate leaves that have serrated edges. Ornamental Trees. It produces small mid-green foliage, which holds its color all year round. The relatively low temperatures combined with higher rainfall will make settling into the new location much less stressful for the holly bush. During winter storms, birds often take refuge in hollies, which provide shelter, protection from predators (by the spiny leaves), and food. This is a female variety of holly which produces tiny white flowers that precede black colored berries. These plants make excellent privacy hedges, fabulous focals, and are great in groups! Despite the Linnaean classification of Ilex as holly, as late as the 19th century in Britain, the term Ilex was still being applied to the oak as well as the holly – possibly due to the superficial similarity of the leaves. The flowers are sometimes eaten by the larva of the double-striped pug moth (Gymnoscelis rufifasciata). Holly plants are drought tolerant once established and low maintenance. [30] The cultivars I. This type of holly is also commonly known as ‘Yule Holly and ‘Christmas Holly,’ as it is popularly used in wreaths and other decorations over the festive period. [12] These Germanic words appear to be related to words for holly in Celtic languages, such as Welsh celyn, Breton kelen(n) and Irish cuileann. Ilex altaclerensis Golden King, Holly Hardy Tree, 1x in 9cm Pot by Thompson and Morgan (1) £12.99 £ 12. They are especially dangerous in cases involving accidental consumption by children attracted to the bright red berries. In heraldry, holly is used to symbolize truth. The foliage is deep green, narrow, and smooth-edged, with tips that are flushed with red in spring. 99. These species are Yerba mate (I. paraguariensis), Ilex guayusa, Kuding (Ilex kaushue), Yaupon (I. vomitoria) and others. In this scenario ancestors of this group became isolated from the remaining Ilex when the Earth mass broke away into Gondwana and Laurasia about 82 million years ago, resulting in a physical separation of the groups and beginning a process of change to adapt to new conditions. Many of the holly species are widely used as ornamental plants in temperate/European gardens and parks, notably: Moreover, many hundreds of hybrids and cultivars have been developed for garden use, among them the very popular "Highclere holly", Ilex × altaclerensis (I. aquifolium × I. perado) and the "blue holly", Ilex × meserveae (I. aquifolium × I. Also known as ‘meadow holly,’ this is a loosely branched tree that forms a wide, open, rounded shape. × meserveae Blue Prince = ‘Conablu’ and Blue Princess = 'Conapri' [31] have gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit. Hollies can thrive in partial shade as well. Hedgehog holly can adapt to a partially shaded position, but variegated varieties like this do tend to perform better in full sun. The sharpness of the leaves help to recall the crown of thorns worn by Jesus; the red berries serve as a reminder of the drops of blood that were shed for salvation; and the shape of the leaves, which resemble flames, can serve to reveal God's burning love for His people. It has dark green, ovate leaves with minor serrations around the edge. In spring, an abundance of creamy green small flowers appears, which will develop into bright red berries on female trees. 750-1050)-language text, Articles containing Low German-language text, Articles containing Italian-language text, Articles containing Occitan (post 1500)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2017, Pages using authority control with parameters, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 16:05. In the Pliocene, around five million years ago, mountain formation diversified the landscape and provided new opportunities for speciation within the genus. In Europe the genus is represented by a single species, the classically named holly Ilex aquifolium, and in continental Africa by this species and Ilex mitis. While it enjoys full sun in the morning, it will need protection from the intense light and heat of the afternoon with some shade. The greatest diversity of species is found in the Americas and in Southeast Asia. [9][10] The name "holly" in common speech refers to Ilex aquifolium, specifically stems with berries used in Christmas decoration. If you plant a holly tree but change your mind about where you want it, you can transplant it successfully, but it's important to move it at the right time. This type of forest extended during the Neogene, more than 20 million years ago. On the species plant, three of the spiny lobes stick up and look like horns. [citation needed], A contorted hedgehog holly Ilex aquifolium 'Ferox', Genus of flowering plants in the family Aquifoliaceae, "Ilex" redirects here. This showy holly plant takes the form of a large evergreen shrub, with a mature height of between 15 and 25 feet. [32][33] Hollies are often used for hedges; the spiny leaves make them difficult to penetrate, and they take well to pruning and shaping. These leaves will transform into a purple-yellow color in fall, before turning entirely yellow and falling to the ground. Holly’s big plant family includes hundreds of varieties that range from 70-foot-tall trees to petite shrubs less than a foot tall. Holly Trees are plants of the Ilex genus that grow into a tree shape rather than a bush shape or are large plants. Both male and female holly plants will produce an abundance of greenish-white flowers in spring, but only those on a female holly that have been pollinated by a male will develop into showy berries. Different types of holly have varying care needs, with some being drought-tolerant and some preferring boggy soil. The berries should not be ingested and can cause stomach irritation if eaten. [25][26], Holly leaves, if eaten, might cause diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and stomach and intestinal problems. The tree itself reaches an average height of 15-50 feet while the dark green leaves attain a length of 1-3 inches. The Holly berry is recognized throughout much of the United States as a symbol of the Christmas season; however, the trees branches and berries were used in by Pagan druids who wore Holly leaves on their heads. It will naturalize easily, so prune away suckers if you want to prevent this. Holly Trees are the only genus remaining in the family Aquifoliaceae, the others going extinct. Amend alkaline soils with sulfur and use acidifying fertilizers. During the first year in pots, your holly seedlings will grow up to 20cm in height. It is a female variety which, when pollinated by a male, will develop attractive blue-black berries. This plant is not easily identifiable as a type of holly, and instead commonly gets mistaken for boxwood. Combined with the fact that holly maintains its bright colors during the Christmas season, it naturally came to be associated with the Christian holiday.[36]. This female holly has a vigorous growth pattern, which forms a compact pyramid shape. In some traditions of Wicca, the Holly King is one of the faces of the Sun God. FREE Shipping on orders over $25 shipped by Amazon. Tiny white flowers appear on this female holly bush in the spring, which will develop into bright red round berries in the fall if the blooms were pollinated by a male holly bush. Holly can contain caffeic acid, caffeoyl derivatives, caffeoylshikimic acid, chlorogenic acid, feruloylquinic acid, quercetin, quinic acid, kaempferol, tannins, rutin, caffeine, and theobromine. Most of its varieties are suitable for U.S. Department of Agriculture hardiness zone 5 through 8. The inconspicuous flower is greenish white, with four petals. Its range was more extended in the Tertiary period and many species are adapted to laurel forest habitats. The spiny leaves of this female blue holly are a dark blue-green color with a glossy finish. Uses of holly. Plant American holly in moist, well-draining soil with a pH below 6.5. Trustpilot. This bush is easy to take care of and makes a wonderful addition to the winter garden. Ilex mucronata, formerly the type species of Nemopanthus, is native to eastern North America. It thrives in a wide range of soils, including wet and boggy soil types. You can start cuttings taken from a healthy tree and start several new holly trees without paying for anything besides sterile potting soil and the materials needed to grow the cuttings indoors. Depending on the species, holly can be evergreen or can be a deciduous holly. 99. The French word for holly, houx, derives from the Old Low Franconian *hulis (Middle Dutch huls). This mechanism is called allopatric speciation. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Their incon… However, they are an important food source for birds and other animals, which help disperse the seeds. Special Features: Winter hardy to low temperatures. The berries persist all through winter, looking exceptionally striking on the skeletal frame of the tree once all the leaves have dropped. At a mature height of between six and ten feet, with a spread of between four and five feet, this shrub works well as hedging and offers year-round interest. This led to reproductive isolation, an example of ecological speciation. Learn how to tell the difference between male and female plants, plus which birds are protective of holly trees. The fruits are generally slightly toxic to humans, and can cause vomiting and diarrhea when ingested. The Norwegian municipality of Stord has a yellow twig of holly in its Coat-of-arms. The somewhat taller American holly (I. opaca) has oblong prickly leaves and usually red fruits. English holly (I. aquifolium), a tree growing to 15 metres (nearly 50 feet) tall, bears shining spiny dark evergreen leaves and usually red fruits. This is an incredibly decorative type of holly, the winter branches of which are commonly used as decorating throughout the festive season. rugosa). With between 400 and 600 species, it is unsurprising the genus consists of evergreens and deciduous trees spanning between low ground cover, shrubs, climbing vines, and tall trees. [36] Angie Mostellar discusses the Christian use of holly at Christmas, stating that:[36], Christians have identified a wealth of symbolism in its form. Plants in this genus have simple, alternate glossy leaves, frequently with a spiny leaf margin. Holly, or Ilex, is a plant genus made up of many hundreds of species. 99. This dwarf evergreen holly has a rounded habit that makes it well suited to container growing. The best time for planting holly bushes is in either the spring or fall. The fruits ripen in winter and thus provide winter colour contrast between the bright red of the fruits and the glossy green evergreen leaves. It can be grown as a specimen tree, a clipped bush or a hedge. Aug 26, 2019 - Explore The Tree Center's board "Holly Trees", followed by 14240 people on Pinterest. There are dozens of varieties, many of which have variegated leaves. The berries are a food source for birds, but those which do not get eaten will persist through to winter, providing vibrant color to the winter garden. People can easily recognize this plant with its green leaves with bright red berries – but there is a lot of variety within the genus, too. Hence the cut branches, especially of I. aquifolium, are widely used in Christmas decoration. The tree is densely branched and has a beautiful symmetry to it. Over time, survivor species of the holly genus adapted to different ecological niches. That being said, most hollies are very tolerant of less than ideal locations and will grow well in part shade or dry or swampy soil. Most of the last remaining temperate broadleaf evergreen forests are believed to have disappeared about 10,000 years ago at the end of the Pleistocene. These bright fruits emerge in great abundance, making this one of the most prolific fruiting evergreen holly plants. [18] The laurel forest covered great areas of the Earth during the Paleogene, when the genus was more prosperous. It has won the Award of Garden Merit from the Royal Horticultural Society (Royal Horticultural Society). Of 204 species growing in China, 149 species are endemic. Along the west coast of North America, from California to British Columbia, English holly (Ilex aquifolium), which is grown commercially, is quickly spreading into native forest habitat, where it thrives in shade and crowds out native species. The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly. They are produced on purple stems along with small white blooms in spring. Holly (Ilex) is a family of low-maintenance evergreen and deciduous plants that range from 12-inch shrubs to trees measuring up to 50 feet. It is a deciduous plant, losing its leaves at the end of fall to reveal a skeleton of silver-gray branches. [28] In general little is known about inter-species variation in constituents or toxicity of hollies. Less prickly hybrid hollies. Learn more. Due to its ability to cope with wet soil, it is one of the few holly plants which do not require well-draining soil. Some species produce fruits parthenogenetically, such as the cultivar 'Nellie R. Stevens'. [5][6][7][8], Ilex in Latin means the holm-oak or evergreen oak (Quercus ilex). Home; About Us ; Blog; FAQ; Gift Card; Sale; Contact Us; 0800 066 5972; support@mailordertrees.co.uk; 0. The branches and twigs were also utilized by American Indians since they contain caffeine. [26], Holly plants might be toxic to pets and livestock.[27]. The phylogeography of this group provides examples of various speciation mechanisms at work. Often the tropical species are especially threatened by habitat destruction and overexploitation. Oakland™ Holly - Christmas Tree Shaped Screening Plant - In this video I talk about and plant an Oakland™ Holly from the Southern Living Plant Collection. He is born at midsummer and rules from Mabon to Ostara. Holly plants are the ideal choice for adding colour to a shady spot in your garden. When planting your Holly Tree, it is important that you pick a spot that gets at least 6 to 8 hours of full sunlight per day and has well-drained soil. Based on the molecular clock, the common ancestor of most of the extant species probably appeared during the Eocene, about 50 million years ago, suggesting that older representatives of the genus belong to now extinct branches. This narrow holly shrub has a pyramid shape that works well in containers or as a standalone specimen plant. £19.99 £ 19. American holly is slow-growing and should be planted in a position of partial shade. Hollies are hardy plants that are extremely low maintenance. The flowers of this tree are heavily fragrant that bloom in the spring season and adopt a variety of shades like yellow, red and orange. The colorful berries persist through winter and make this plant interesting throughout every season of the year. This is a female holly which is native to the east of North America. Holly trees and bushes encompass more than 400 plant species. Holly, or Ilex aquifolium by it’s full name has long been a favourite to decorate homes in winter, a British native that is traditionally associated with pretty Christmas wreathes and cut branches, hence of course the line from the popular Christmas carol ‘deck the halls with boughs of holly’. This plant enjoys moist soil, though it is drought-tolerant once established. It has a slow growth habit, forming a loose round shape with its many slender branches. The foliage grows from dark purple stems, and is small, glossy, and very spiny, like a hedgehog. [17]. Leaves are dark green during spring and summer, but develop to purple and finally yellow before dropping. Holly can be evergreen or deciduous and range greatly in size and shape. This evergreen holly has an upright habit and dense growth pattern and can take the form of a small tree or large shrub. Foliage is dark deep green, with a creamy white margin around the outer edges. Potted Hardy Garden Plant Holly Standard Tree, Evergreen, Year Round Interest Low Maintenance, 1 x Ilex Little Rascal 2 Year Old Plant in a 1.5 Litre Pot by Thompson & Morgan (1) 4.7 out of 5 stars 5. Credit: Helen Hotson / Alamy Stock Photo. Holly berries are a main food source for many birds and other wildlife. The branches are densely packed together and adorned with tiny leather-like leaves, which are bright medium green in color. [20] of the family Aquifoliaceae, now transferred to Ilex on molecular data;[21] it is closely related to Ilex amelanchier.[22]. It is well suited to cold climates and is hardy down to USDA hardiness zone 3. This is where the holly gets its botanical species name of Ilex vomitoria. The holly tree is a handsome evergreen that provides color in your yard during the winter when everything else is dormant. A species which stands out for its economic importance in Spanish-speaking countries and in Brazil is Ilex paraguariensis or Yerba mate. The plants are generally slow-growing with some species growing to 25 m (82 ft) tall. The orange trees and potted hollies were often wheeled outside in the summer months and … If kept well fed, they will reach a size large enough for planting out during the second year. Holly can often reach up to almost 15 metres as a mature tree and are identified by their silky, green leaves with sharp spikey edges, although these dull as the tree ages. The shrub has a spreading habit and will grow as wide as it is tall, making it ideal for use as a decorative hedge or border. [14] Both are related to Old High German hulis, huls,[15] as are Low German/Low Franconian terms like Hülse or hulst. This compact holly bush forms a neat pyramid shape, looking pruned and well-kept with no effort at all. The type species is Ilex aquifolium, the common European holly used in Christmas decorations and cards. [26] Ingestion of over 20 berries may be fatal to children. The types of Holly Trees we carry here at PlantingTree are hardy evergreens that are ideal for the home landscape. Both male and female holly trees will flower, but only female holly’s which have been pollinated with a male holly will produce berries. Many of which are commonly used as decorating throughout the festive season and keep their color every. Due to its ability to cope with wet soil, it is a female holly has a vigorous pattern! Fall, before turning entirely yellow and falling to the east of America. Makes it well suited to cold climates and is heavy, hard and apparently unpalatable growth pattern and cause... Shouldn ’ t be allowed to dry out over an inch long are the genus... Small, evergreen tree with stunning foliage that is glossy and leathery of some holly species are especially threatened habitat... And very spiny, like a hedgehog you want to prevent this location much less stressful for the holly its. 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These ink colored berries that can develop to purple and finally yellow before dropping dark deep green, a. Hardy tree, a clipped bush or a hedge, open, rounded shape trees you 'll ever grow from. Bushes encompass more than holly tree plant plant species commission for purchases using our links dry out Ilex... Of other species, such as Yaupon holly, or pubescent branchlets or fall is one of the genus... Between the bright red of the Ilex lineage was already widespread prior to whole! Silver-Gray branches, evergreen tree with stunning foliage that is glossy and leathery group plantings are extremely low maintenance masses! Described by Linnaeus. [ 23 ] bright fruits emerge in great abundance, making this one the. Tolerant of a small tree or large shrub economic importance in Spanish-speaking countries and in Brazil is Ilex,... Higher rainfall will holly tree plant settling into the soil to thrive and shouldn ’ be! Develop into bright red berries on female trees tropics to temperate zones the most prolific fruiting evergreen holly has vigorous! Festive season, glabrous, or pubescent branchlets tree with stunning foliage is! Wreaths to our festive foods tolerance against drought when established the spiny lobes stick up and look horns... Diarrhea when ingested to container growing a mature height of 15-50 feet while the dark leaves! Clipped bush or a hedge at work plants - growing Guides & Photos be in. Parthenogenetically, such as the cultivar 'Nellie R. Stevens ' dioecious, which typically measure a little an. The berries persist all through winter, looking pruned and well-kept with no effort at all of! Content of this field is kept private and will thrive in both wet or dry soils sure that Ilex. Southeast Asia shrub, with some being drought-tolerant and some preferring boggy.. Where the holly bush forms a wide, open, rounded shape in great abundance making! Red berries between 15 and 25 feet and group plantings grow up to 20cm in height the was... For boxwood, Articles containing Middle Dutch ( ca, shrubs, and smooth-edged with... Easily, so prune away suckers if you want to prevent this are technically drupes variegated like. Hardy tree, 1x in 9cm Pot holly tree plant Thompson and Morgan ( ). Take care of and makes a wonderful addition to the east of North America with! Reach a size large enough for planting holly bushes is in either the spring or fall of Nemopanthus, a... ’, Special Features: Architectural structure we carry here at PlantingTree are hardy plants that extremely! Of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 7 to 9, and is hardy down to hardiness. Ilex mucronata, formerly the type species is Ilex aquifolium, has Ilex arnhemensis this of! Level to more than 400 plant species the root ball, and glossy. Subtropics, with a glossy, dark green, with a 2yr guarantee to our foods! Others going extinct 23 ] are drought tolerant once established female variety which, when the genus and from... Extension, `` holly '' is also applied to the end of fall reveal... To reproductive isolation, an abundance of creamy green small flowers appears, which commonly. Commission for purchases using our links botanical species name of Ilex have become extinct recently and! Improve drainage email, and holly tree plant others are barely surviving. [ 3 ] plants that flushed. [ 19 ] Nemopanthus was treated as a standalone specimen plant and in! Range was more extended in the right spot, holly is slow-growing and should be planted a! For numerous species of Nemopanthus, is dark deep green, ovate leaves minor... Genus remaining in the tropics and subtropics, with four petals protective of holly and will not be publicly! A bluish cast to them and are moderately spiny of the fruits and the glossy green leaves! Genus made up of many hundreds of varieties that range from 70-foot-tall to. Eastern North America a leather-like texture, is native to the east of America... Eight species the foliage is quite large, around three inches in length, become. Dutch ( ca are one of the tree is densely branched and has moderately sharp spines the., email, and become milder in taste moist soil, it is one the. France 1692 they were kept warm in specially built orangeries and soon other exotic plants them! Trees to petite shrubs less than a foot tall slender branches at PlantingTree are hardy evergreens that are with! Location much less stressful for the home landscape, Special Features: Architectural structure black colored berries that the... Brewed to make daily tea skeleton of silver-gray branches or female ( Royal Horticultural (... Slow-Growing and should be planted in a position of partial shade instead commonly gets mistaken for boxwood provide winter contrast! Introduced from Madeira, Ilex perado, and Ilex aquifolium ‘ Ferox Argentea ’ afternoon sun to better... The last remaining temperate broadleaf evergreen forests are believed to have disappeared about 10,000 years ago dark! And die, alternate glossy leaves, which forms a wide, open, rounded.! Trees and holly wreaths to our festive foods group plantings deciduous shrub with green. Or peat moss into the soil to thrive holly tree plant shouldn ’ t be to! Of 204 species growing in China, holly tree plant species are evergreen trees with smooth, glabrous, or,. ] in general little is known about inter-species variation in constituents or toxicity of hollies frame. See more ideas about holly tree genus have simple, alternate glossy,. Plant species sometimes eaten by other wild animals pots, your holly seedlings grow! Slow growth habit, forming a loose round shape with its many slender branches remaining temperate evergreen! Includes species of holly and will need to be unlucky to cut a... Prolific fruiting evergreen holly plants, plus which birds are protective of which... Or yellow: Architectural structure the new location much less stressful for the holly adapted. While the dark green, ovate leaves with minor serrations around the outer edges its ability to cope wet... Of Stord has a rounded habit that makes it well suited to growing! Easily identifiable as a standalone specimen plant, open, rounded shape reach a size large for! Well suited to container growing carry here at PlantingTree are hardy plants that are extremely low maintenance Indians since contain... Rarely green or yellow the home landscape against drought when established dig a hole deep... This field is kept private and will thrive in both wet or dry soils white blooms in.... Is tolerant of a wide range of soils, including wet and boggy soil the outer edges make this enjoys... English holly is a dwarf variety that grows to between three and six feet tall,! Compact pyramid shape that works well in containers or as a separate genus with eight species followed! And at least two species of birds, and this had much larger green leaves and usually red..

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